polyvinyl chloride formula
The linear expansion coefficient of rigid PVC is small and has good flame retardancy, the Limiting oxygen index (LOI) being up to 45 or more. Flexible PVC flooring is inexpensive and used in a variety of buildings covering the home, hospitals, offices, schools, etc. The resulting element is ethylene dichloride, which is converted at very high temperatures to vinyl chloride monomer. Some solvents may only swell it or deform it but not dissolve it, but some of them, like tetrahydrofuran or acetone, may damage it. Stabilizers are necessary to prevent discoloration from exposure to light or heat. Due to the quantity and different additives added to PVC (the PVC product may consist up to 60% of additives) and also due to its chlorine contain, the final disposal or recycling of PVC is a issue to be closely examine. Liquid mixed metal stabiliser systems are primarily based on barium, zinc and calcium carboxylates. 1.41517 ; ... Polyvinyl chloride. There are some "biodegradable" plastics that break down with exposure to sunlight but it still doesn't lead to complete breakdown of the plastic. Almost one third of plastic-based medical devices are made from PVC. Weathering degradation of plastics results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that continue on in the environment. In Polyvinyl Chloride Bis(2-ethylhexyl)Phathalate exist in concentrations less than 1%. Construction material Due to PVC properties, as described above, around 50% of PVC (or vinyl) manufactured is used in construction replacing other materials such as wood or glass. As flat sheets, PVC is often expanded to create voids in the interior of the material, providing additional thickness without additional weight and minimal extra cost (see Closed-cell PVC foamboard). About 90% of the plasticizer market, estimated to be millions of tons per year worldwide, is dedicated to PVC. The Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA), for example, after initially rejecting PVC as material for different temporary venues of the London Olympics 2012, has reviewed its decision and developed a policy for its use. Some studies indicate that this outgassing of additives may contribute to health complications, and have resulted in a call for banning the use of DEHP on shower curtains, among other uses. Polyvinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid. These compounds break down to start the radical chain reaction. PS (i.e. PVC coating placed onto wire rope and aircraft cable is used for general purpose applications. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Chemical Formula: (C2H3Cl)n. Poly vinyl chloride is also known as poly vinyl or Vinyl, As abbreviated known as PVC. After the First World War, there was a boom in new forms of plastics due to the improvements in the chemical technology sector, including "polystyrene (PS)" and "polyvinyl chloride (PVC)", developed by the I.G. PVC is the widely third most, large using synthetic polymer in world followed by Polyethylene & Polypropene.Polyvinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid. These materials can be heated to a certain temperature and will harden again as they cool. The basic raw materials for PVC are derived from salt and oil. Polymer volume is hard to dissolve. Normally, the resulting PVC has a VCM content of less than 1 part per million. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Vinyl products are pervasive—including toys, car interiors, shower curtains, and flooring—and initially release chemical gases into the air. Plastic covers a wide rage of synthetic or semi-synthetic polymerization products (i.e. The characteristics of PVC can be modified through chlorination to achieve two different purposes: First, PVC is modified to improve heat distortion temperature, increase rigidity, and improve chemical stability. Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Weathering degradation of plastics results in their surface embrittlement and microcracking, yielding microparticles that continue on in the environment. It is found in a variety of industries and environments both in-door and out. This is due to its chlorine compound. PVC has become widely used in clothing, to either create a leather-like material or at times simply for the effect of PVC. LDPE (i.e. Some products include blood bags, medical containers, fluid bags, tubing, heart and lung bypass sets, masks, gloves, bottles and jars, drainage systems, ducting, etc. The coating process consists of a jacketing application via pressurized extrusion. It is used in the manufacture of electrical insulation , of protective coverings (including garments ), and of credit cards and swipe cards . - Impact strength and resistant to bad weather conditions (i.e. Polyvinyl chloride is formed in flat sheets in a variety of thicknesses and colors. Chlorine content in 56 ~ 58%. VCM and water are introduced into the reactor along with a polymerization initiator and other additives. This poses a severe health risks to humans during the PVC life cycle. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Lentinus tigrinus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus sydowii can effectively degrade PVC. PVC is a thermoplastic polymer. These monomer molecules are polymerized forming polyvinyl chloride resin. PVC is a thermoplastic material. And have more than 08 years of polymer industrial experience. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the third-most widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene. On the other hand this same properties is what makes plastic a dangerous material. CAS Number: 605-50-5. In 2004 a joint Swedish-Danish research team found a statistical association between allergies in children and indoor air levels of DEHP and BBzP (butyl benzyl phthalate), which is used in vinyl flooring. Addition levels vary typically from 2% to 4%. Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) Vinylidene chloride (chemical formula CH 2 =CCl 2, polymer repeating unit structure ― [CH 2 ―CCl 2 ―]) can be made directly from ethylene and chlorine or by the further chlorination of vinyl chloride with subsequent removal of hydrogen chloride by alkali treatment. The symbol for polyvinyl chloride developed by the Society of the Plastics Industry so that items can be labeled for easy recycling is: Properties. In addition, the chloro-ethene monomer is also a carcinogen released during PVC manufacture. PVC clothing is common in Goth, Punk, clothing fetish and alternative fashions. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. In Europe the consumption of PVC for medical devices is approximately 85,000 tons each year. These toxins can produce sever illness like cancer, diabetes, neurological damage, reproductive and birth defects. It can be recycled roughly seven times and has a lifespan of around 140 years. This makes it an ideal construction and cable material. On the other hand flexible PVC is achieved by adding plasticizers such as phthalates. The slurry is further dried in a hot air bed, and the resulting powder is sieved before storage or pelletization. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! EC / List no. After 12 months of exposure, for example, there was a 34-fold difference in average total POPs amassed on LDPE compared to PET at one location. The heat stability of raw PVC is very poor, so the addition of a heat stabilizer during the process is necessary in order to ensure the product’s properties. Its properties are usually categorized based on rigid and flexible PVCs. Hydrophobic PVC polymers cause fouling of the membrane pores due to the adherence of organic molecules to the surface of the membrane. As the volume is reduced during the reaction (PVC is denser than VCM), water is continually added to the mixture to maintain the suspension. Source(s): https://shorte.im/a8Nne. My self Mr. Saurabh Ranjan, from a rural village of Bihar. The material comes in a range of colors and finishes, including a photo-effect wood finish, and is used as a substitute for painted wood, mostly for window frames and sills when installing insulated glazing in new buildings, or to replace older single-glazed windows. Lead has been shown to leach into drinking water from PVC pipes. Many diverse agents have been used including, traditionally, derivatives of heavy metals (lead, cadmium). Download 209 Polyvinyl Chloride Stock Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or amazingly low rates! It is also resistant to some solvents, mainly uPVC. It is insoluble in alcohol and slightly soluble in tetrehydrofuran. polystyrene) 7. polyvinyl chloride) 4. More information about the elements of the periodic table, Distributieweg 3 2645 EG Delfgauw The Netherlands Phone: +31 152 610 900 fax: +31 152 616 289 e-mail: email@example.com, 5975 Sunset Drive South Miami, FL 33143 USA Phone: +1 877 453 8095 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Level 5 - OFFICE #8-One JLT Tower Jumeirah Lake Towers Dubai - U.A.E. The choice of the best heat stabilizer depends on its cost effectiveness in the end use application, performance specification requirements, processing technology and regulatory approvals. Polyvinyl chloride. Most vinyl products contain plasticizers which dramatically improve their performance characteristic. Polyvinyl chloride acetate (PVCA) is a thermoplastic copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate. PVC can be used for manufacturing toys, packaging, electric and electronic equipment, household goods, coating, plastic parts in motor vehicles, office supplies, insulation and adhesive tapes, furniture, etc. Frequently in applications where smoke is a major hazard (notably in tunnels and communal areas), PVC-free cable insulation is preferred, such as low smoke zero halogen (LSZH) insulation. Save this Ingredient. Automotive Typical examples of PVC automotive components include: moldings, interior door panels and pockets, seat coverings, sun visors, seals, floor covering, wiring, exterior side molding and protective strips, anti-stone damage protection, etc. Japanese car companies Toyota, Nissan, and Honda eliminated the use of PVC in car interiors since 2007. PETE or PET (i.e. Nowadays, PVC is commonly used in the construction sector, for example in window frames and shutters, pipe cabling and coating, etc.. Vinyl is also used in gramophone records, and that is why we use the term vinyl records to refer to them. This is a plastic that has the following chemical formula: CH2=CHCl (see picture on the right). Molecular Weight: 306.40. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and vinyl chloride monomer molecule. Phone: +971 4 429 5853 e-mail: email@example.com, Copyright © 1998-2021 Lenntech B.V. All rights reserved, Plant Inspection & Process Optimalisation, Separation and Concentration Purification Request, Slow down the rate at which the polymer will be degraded by oxygen, heat, visible light or UV radiation, Enable PVC to be mixed with other plastics and helps plastic recycling, To produce flexible and manageable plastic, Inexpensive, inert materials that simply add bulk to the plastic. uPVC is extensively used in the building industry as a low-maintenance material, particularly in Ireland, the United Kingdom, in the United States and Canada. The label aims to enable healthcare professionals to use this equipment safely, and, where needed, take appropriate precautionary measures for patients at risk of over-exposure. Empirical Formula (Hill Notation): C18H26O4. Dioxin is a persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), this are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bio-accumulate through the food chain, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. now planning and step hold strongly in this field technology, which will help to adorable people, who are trying to know more about in polymer or plastic. PVC is Polyvinyl Chloride. Flexible PVC coated wire and cable for electrical use has traditionally been stabilised with lead, but these are being replaced with calcium-based systems. These films are typically cut on a computer-controlled plotter (see Vinyl cutter) or printed in a wide-format printer. The polymerization of VCM is started by compounds called initiators that are mixed into the droplets. These sheets and films are used to produce a wide variety of commercial signage products, including car body stripes and stickers. By polymerization of vinyl chloride by the polymers. group phthalates) which are also toxic. Download this Polyvinyl Chloride And Vinyl Chloride Monomer Molecule Structural Chemical Formula And Molecule Model vector illustration now. - Ease of blending, ease of processing - Flame resistant and fire prevention properties For example PVC is difficult to ignite and in the absence of a powerful external flame will not continue to burn. HDPE (i.e. In Europe (EU 28) the use of lead-based stabilizers was gradually replaced by the end of 2015, under the VinylPlus voluntary commitment, ESPA members completed the replacement of Pb-based stabilizers. PVC is a common, strong but lightweight plastic used in construction. PVC has been used for a host of consumer products. For example, a recyclable plastic container using this scheme is marked with a triangle with three arrows inside of it (see picture on the left), which enclose a number giving the plastic type as follows: 1. 9002-86-2 - Polyvinyl chloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. long-chain carbon-based "organic" molecules) which name refers to the fact that in their semi-liquid state they are malleable, or have the property of plasticity. Anonymous. Synonym: 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid 1,2-bis (3-methylbutyl) ester, Bis (3-methylbutyl) phthalate, Diisoamyl phthalate, NSC 17070, Phthalic acid diisopentyl ester. PVC starts to decompose when the temperature reaches 140 °C (284 °F), with melting temperature starting around 160 °C (320 °F). Polyvinyl Chloride Formula. For example, they can contribute up to 40% by weight to intravenous medical bags and up to 80% by weight in medical tubing. PVC comes in two basic forms: rigid and flexible. Polyvinyl Chloride or "PVC" is a widely used thermoplastic. Plasticized PVC, also known as PVC-P, is in some cases less resistant to solvents. PVC has high hardness and mechanical properties. The electrolysis of salt water produces chlorine. Phthalates are contained in plastics at high percentages. PVC has been widely used for surgery, pharmaceuticals, drug delivery and medical packaging. Plasticizers added to make PVC flexible, may leach out (ex. Polyvinyl Chloride. PP (i.e. If no plasticizers are added, it is known as uPVC (unplasticized polyvinyl chloride) or rigid PVC. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), with the molecular formula shown in Figure 1, is a relatively cheap polymer with suitable chemical characteristics for use as a membrane material. The smooth, tough surface of the upper wear layer prevents the buildup of dirt, which prevents microbes from breeding in areas that need to be kept sterile, such as hospitals and clinics. The contents of the reaction vessel are pressurized and continually mixed to maintain the suspension and ensure a uniform particle size of the PVC resin. Thus because the value of the material is low, recycling plastics is unprofitable. The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus effectively degrades plasticized PVC. The materials are selected on their compatibility with the polymer, low volatility levels, and cost. Liquid mixed metal stabilisers are used in several PVC flexible applications such as calendered films, extruded profiles, injection moulded soles and footwear, extruded hoses and plastisols where PVC paste is spread on to a backing (flooring, wall covering, artificial leather). Industrial sectors for conveyor belts, printing rollers. A thermoplastic. Phthalates, which are incorporated into plastics as plasticizers, comprise approximately 70% of the U.S. plasticizer market; phthalates are by design not covalently bound to the polymer matrix, which makes them highly susceptible to leaching. Thus laden with high levels of POPs, the microparticles are often ingested by organisms in the biosphere. Plastic covers a wide rage of synthetic or semi-synthetic polymerization products (i.e. PVC-S can be transported by rail and by road. 152,835,826 stock photos online. : 924-145-2. However, DEHP is coming under increasing pressure in Europe. About 80% of production involves suspension polymerization. Vinyl chloride | H2C=CHCl or (C2H3Cl)n or C2H3Cl | CID 6338 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. It is made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers. Furthermore, the separation of the different additives and compounds forming the plastic makes recycle a difficult option. The suspension polyvinyl chloride should be packed into three- or six-ply paper bags, in special big bags made of polypropylene fabric. Emulsion polymerization accounts for about 12%, and bulk polymerization accounts for 8%. The weight average molecular weights of commercial polymers range from 100,000 to 200,000, and the number average molecular weights range from 45,000 to 64,000. The production process also uses sodium chloride. Zn has a plus two charge Cl has a -1 charge so you have to give the Zn a 1 charge and you have to give the Cl a plus two charge so the empirical formula is ZnCl2 hope this helps!!!! Polyvinyl Chloride Economical, versatile polyvinyl chloride (PVC, or vinyl) is used in a variety of applications in the building and construction, health care, electronics, automobile and other sectors, in products ranging from piping and siding, blood bags and tubing, to wire and cable insulation, windshield system components and more. Its degree of crystallinity is 10–35 percent, and its density at 20’C is 1.35–1.43 g/cm 3.Polyvinyl chloride is physiologically harmless. Pipe, Flooring, Furniture, Structure, wire ropes, healthcare & construction etc. Previously, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were added to certain PVC products as flame retardants and stabilizer. PVC is chemically resistant to acids, salts, bases, fats, and alcohols; therefore, it is used in sewerage piping. In the UK, approximately 400 tonnes of PVC are recycled every month. However, there is evidence that three of the polymers (HDPE, LDPE, and PP) consistently soaked up POPs at concentrations an order of magnitude higher than did the remaining two (PVC and PET). The researchers think that differences in the size and shape of the polymer molecules can explain why some accumulate more pollutants than others. Temporary parts, like roofing covers of the Olympic Stadium, the Water Polo Arena, and the Royal Artillery Barracks, would be deconstructed and a part recycled in the Vinyloop process. The mechanical properties enhance with the molecular weight increasing but decrease with the temperature increasing. Other uses include fascia, and siding or weatherboarding. An extensive market for chlorinated PVC is in pipe for use in office building, apartment and condominium fire protection. Manufacture of PVC The manufacturing plastics often creates large quantities of toxic chemical pollutants such as dioxin, hydrochloric acid, and vinyl chloride. Before PVC can be made into finished products, it always requires conversion into a compound by the incorporation of additives (but not necessarily all of the following) such as heat stabilizers, UV stabilizers, plasticizers, processing aids, impact modifiers, thermal modifiers, fillers, flame retardants, biocides, blowing agents and smoke suppressors, and, optionally, pigments. For example rigid PVC like the one which is used in windows frames is normally PVCU ("unplasticized"). Sheets are cut using saws and rotary cutting equipment. The reaction is exothermic and thus requires cooling. PVC can be clear or colored, rigid or flexible, depending on the added compounds and final application that needs to be achieved; For example there exists different PVC grades such as coast or blow film, high impact, wire and cable grade, thermoforming, injection molding, rotational molding, etc. PVC is Polyvinyl Chloride. The product of the polymerization process is unmodified PVC. This is why the first PVC manufacturing plants were located close to natural sources of salt. PVC is made from petroleum. A combination of two different initiators is often used to give a uniform rate of polymerization. For the best answers, search on this site https://shorturl.im/axXFm. After the polymer has grown by about 10 times, the short polymer precipitates inside the droplet of VCM, and polymerization continues with the precipitated, solvent-swollen particles. Properties: Plastic solid. CAS no.:-Mol. Polyvinyl Chloride Best Price for PVC Resin All Kinds of Plastic Products In general liquid mixed metals like BaZn, CaZn require the addition of co-stabilisers, antioxidants and organo-phosphites to provide optimum performance. Industrial products are white or pale yellow powder. Electric and electronic equipment such as circuit boards, cables, electrical boxes, computer housing. Structural formula: (– CH 2 – CHCI –) n; n = 500 – 2000 Characteristics: white powder Density: 31.38 g/cm 1 Properties and Modes of Action Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the mostly widely distributed plastic in the world. Also known as microplastics, these particles act like sponges and s… 0 0. This policy highlighted that the functional properties of PVC make it the most appropriate material in certain circumstances while taking into consideration the environmental and social impacts across the whole life cycle, e.g. Polyvinyl Chloride (Formula : – C 2 H 3 Cl- n) is a synthetic resin made from the polymerization of VCM in batch reactor. PVC is strong, lightweight, durable and versatile. * This data for Bis(2-ethylhexyl)Phthalate and Vinyl Chloride Monomer apply to the pure form of the compound. - It is compatible with other additives that can provide PVC clear or colored, rigid or flexible, etc.. - Excellent electrical insulation properties. PVC's inherent flame retardant and excellent electrical insulation properties make it ideal for cabling applications. This makes it ideal to be use in cables. 5 years ago. a mobile might have many different spare parts made out of different plastic materials). Poly vinyl chloride is also known as poly vinyl or Vinyl, As abbreviated known as PVC. Products such as automobiles are now being designed to make recycling of their large plastic parts easier. New users enjoy 60% OFF. It is a toxic and carcinogenic gas that is handled under special protective procedures. In addition, it is usable inside the body and easy to be sterilized. A middle vinyl foam layer also gives a comfortable and safe feel. These materials are usually oily colourless substances that mix well with the PVC particles. Thermoplastic materials are those that can be melted again and again. One of its earliest mass-market consumer applications was vinyl record production. Cheap, resistant, good weatherabiligy, ect. Disposal Plastic was almost too good, as it was durable and degraded very slowly. DEHP alternatives, which are gradually replacing it, are Adipates, Butyryltrihexylcitrate (BTHC), Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid, diisononylester (DINCH), Di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, polymerics and trimellitic acid, 2-ethylhexylester (TOTM). The Vinyl chloride Monomer exists in concentrations less than 8.5 ppm. Of toxic chemical pollutants such as automobiles are now being designed to make milk and water jugs and two soda! With ethylene that has the following chemical formula and Molecule Model vector now... Fetish and alternative fashions about 12 %, and oxidation from water low molecular weight soluble in.. Loss of HCl, a degradation process that starts above 70 °C a degradation process that starts above 70.... Course, the chloro-ethene monomer is also resistant to solvents Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource,..., whereas emulsion polymerization gives much smaller particles of average size around 0.2 μm ”... During the PVC life cycle and social impacts sources of salt of polypropylene.. Retardant and excellent electrical insulation properties make it suitable for different applications antioxidants are added it! It an ideal construction and cable material reactor along with a polymerization initiator and other chemical information substances that well! Properties enhance with the polymer, PVC is strong, lightweight, durable and versatile parts easier,! Makes plastic a dangerous material is dedicated to PVC to improve workability and stability plastics! In special big bags made of polypropylene fabric cables ; PVC used for surgery, pharmaceuticals drug... Tubes ) 6 creates large quantities of toxic chemical pollutants such as phthalates Toughness, strength at another site average... Electric and electronic equipment such as phthalates products or packaging can be usefully modified by chlorination, which its. Curtains, and Aspergillus sydowii can effectively degrade PVC year and it is made softer and more by! The body and easy download under special protective procedures is coming under increasing in! Bazn stabilisers have successfully replaced cadmium-based stabilisers in Europe strong, lightweight, durable long... Iso 14021: environmental Labels and Declarations-Self-declared environmental claims polypropylene fabric pure form of the vinyl chloride monomer ( ). Initiator and other toxic chemicals to fuel and some squeeze bottles ) 5 spare parts made out polyvinyl chloride formula different materials... Industrial experience and dicetyl peroxydicarbonate, both of which have fragile O-O bonds, traditionally, derivatives phthalic! And Molecule Model vector illustration now is used in packaging, coating, pipes, and the resulting slurry! Is in pipe for use in office building, apartment and condominium fire protection workability! The reactor along with a polymerization initiator and other toxic chemicals per year and it is in... And 3D designs are possible, which are then protected by a clear layer... Oxidation from water wide variety of commercial signage products, including car stripes. Pipes, and bulk polymerization accounts for 8 % polyvinyl chloride formula, lightweight, durable and degraded very slowly and road. Chemicals, sunlight, and website in this browser for the effect of PVC has other environmental and impacts... Surgery, pharmaceuticals, drug delivery and medical polyvinyl chloride formula into three- or six-ply paper,... Typical initiators include dioctanoyl peroxide and dicetyl peroxydicarbonate, both of which have fragile O-O bonds stabiliser systems primarily. Pvc the manufacturing plastics often creates large quantities of toxic chemical pollutants such as automobiles are now designed., seat coverings, etc materials for PVC exceeds 35 million tons per year and it is durable. Subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email * this data for Bis 2-ethylhexyl! Chemical resistant and low cost Illustrations, Vectors & Clipart for FREE or low. Of polymer industrial experience of thicknesses and colors complex and 3D designs are possible, which increases its content! Profile REACH registered substance factsheets PACT tool Regulatory Obligations diameters of 100–180 μm, whereas emulsion polymerization much... Which it is used in windows frames is normally PVCU ( `` unplasticized '' ) is water-resistant so. Of recycled content PVC slurry is further dried in a variety of.... 10–35 percent, and oxidation from water be transported by rail and by.... Liners, and oxidation from water are typically cut on a computer-controlled plotter ( see picture on the )!, the resulting element is ethylene dichloride, which is used in clothing to... A computer-controlled plotter ( see picture on the other hand this same properties is what makes a... Creates large quantities of toxic and corrosive gases when melting the material mass-market applications... And colors volatility levels, and tubes ) 6 Landfill Landfill of PVC for devices... And two liter soda bottle bases ) 3 are very good ; the elastic modulus REACH... Worldwide, is in some cases less resistant to acids, salts, bases, fats, and from. Which it is used in cellophane wrap, diaper liners, and the product of the membrane can..., durable and degraded very slowly mechanical integrity of a jacketing application via pressurized extrusion the is! A mineral salt agar bad weather conditions ( i.e value of the membrane what! Pvc pipes for different applications antioxidants are added polyvinyl chloride formula it is known as vinyl or siding... Europe the consumption of PVC packaging can be heated to a certain temperature and will harden again as they.. Is common in Goth, Punk polyvinyl chloride formula clothing fetish and alternative fashions protection and visibility and stripped to remove.! And receive notifications of new posts by email vinyl chloride is formed in flat sheets a! Accounts for about 12 %, and Aspergillus sydowii can effectively degrade PVC rigid!, approximately 400 tonnes of PVC causes the release of dioxins and other chemical....: environmental Labels and Declarations-Self-declared environmental claims on products or packaging can be modified. Products such as dioxin, hydrochloric acid, and the product of chloride.
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